INTRODUCTION. There is now a high level of acceptance amongst biodeterioration biologists and technologists in the paints and biocides industries , that. Several paints of varying chemistry have been in use for domestic and industrial purposes. The painted Biodeterioration of domestic and public buildings. PDF | This paper presents a review of the biodeterioration of architectural paint films by bacteria, fungi and algae, concentrating on external films. references .
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Biologically induced corrosion of natural stones—strong contamination of monuments with nitrifying organisms. Cragnolino G and Tuovinen OH The role of sulphatereducing and sulphur-oxidising bacteria in the localized corrosion of iron-base alloys – biodeteriration review.
The cave contained an impressive display of prehistoric art: When the hypogean rooms of the Domus Aurea in Rome were opened to visitors invery rapidly green crusts appeared on the frescoes in lighted areas; their development was so rapid that, inillumination had to be discontinued Finally, dirt, soot, and other environmental contaminants, accumulating on the painted surface, may represent another not insignificant source of nutrients.
Investigations on the presence and role of bacteria in deteriorated zones of Cozia Monastery painting. Stoye D and Freitag W Paints, coatings and solvents. In laboratory experiments, 19 species of the fungi isolated from the two frescoes paintts tested for the capacity to grow on the materials used for restoration calcium caseinate, animal glue, and masonite, used as a support panel.
Recent advances in biodeterioration and biodegradation. According to the researchers, support for this conclusion was given by the finding that most of the heterotrophs that were present on frescoes were capable of hydrolyzing bacterial and yeast cell walls. Firstly by discussion at the meetings, secondly by carrying out and reporting on individual laboratory investigations and, most importantly, by organising, performing and reporting on collaborative experimental work or round robin testing.
With few exceptions, the paintings, some as long as 5 m, represented different animals some imaginaryand their quality was such that the cave was designated by some the Sistine Chapel of the Paleolithic. Such variations in the fungal floras present in samples taken at different times, or in frescoes of the same age and in the same location, were often observed and do not allow us to establish conclusively that the fungi present on a painted surface, even when they are absent from the environment, are responsible for the damage observed on the paintings.
Over strains of actinomycetes were isolated from 13 frescoes in different Italian hypogean sites. In four young men discovered the Lascaux Cave in the Dordogne region of France. Microbiology of paint films. The analyses were essentially limited to the fungal population and demonstrated that clear differences existed between the numbers of species isolated from art works and those isolated from the environment in which the art work was located.
Una caratteristica alterazione delle murature e degli intonaci; pp. For a more comprehensive treatment of the role of microorganisms in the degradation of our cultural heritage, the reader should refer to the reviews already published 261213202930364655 Indeed, in this investigation, biodeteriorarion of acetylene reduction in situ demonstrated that nitrogen fixation occurred, albeit at a reduced rate, in the microbial biofilm covering the frescoes.
Microbiodeterioration of library materials.
Microbial Degradation of Paintings
References Alexander M Biodegradation of chemicals of environmental concern. Its scope will be limited to paintings, both on canvas and panel, as well as on walls. In an extensive investigation of the fungal colonizations of frescoes in eight different Moldavian monasteries, Ionita 25 isolated 26 different species of bioddterioration from stains appearing on the frescoes, from areas of efflorescence, and from zones in which the painted layer was fissured and portions were breaking away from the painst.
Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Unlike Bacillus pumilusgrowth and survival on mock paintings of the bacteria isolated from the fresco were not stimulated by the presence of Aspergillus niger.
Further, no attempt has been made to identify the species responsible for the damage, both aesthetic and structural, and the species that are just saprophytes living on the painted surface may be growing at the expense of other microorganisms colonizing the frescoes.
Mecklenburg The influence of lead ions on the drying of oils. Alexander M Biodegradation of chemicals of environmental concern. The lighting system, installed in the cave and operating almost continuously, created the conditions for a massive growth of photosynthetic organisms. This advertisement will close after 20 biodeterioratioj or click here to close.
Oyman Okan Z Towards environmentally friendly catalysts for alkyd coatings. C R Acad Sci. Thus, other art works, such as those in stone, wood, paper, and masonry, as well as those in more esoteric materials, such as leather, parchment, glass, and metal, will not be considered.
It may be added that high levels of humidity, temperature, and light, as may be found, for instance, biodeterioratiln warmer climates, may shorten the, one could say, life span of a painting by exacerbating the damages caused by air pollution, biological attack, and natural aging.
Decay of plaster paintings and wall material of the interior of buildings via microbial activity; pp. Bacteria, especially of the genus Arthrobacterwere reported to be among the first colonizers of murals in a medieval church in Rostov, Russia 41and to be responsible for oxidation of the lead present in pigments, resulting in the production of brown-black paintd of lead oxides.
On the other hand, from a mural in Canterbury Cathedral only one fungal species, Beauveria alba Engyodontium albumwas repeatedly isolated 26 and, similarly, on damaged frescoes in an Italian church only one species of Cladosporium was found If, for any reason, control of humidity, temperature, and light, as occurs in museums, is not possible, then protection of objects of biodeterioratiion or historical interest rests only on the intrinsic components of such objects that can render them refractory to microbial colonization.
In addition, they showed that many such organisms, especially the fungi, could grow between the paint layers and the ground, causing a swelling of the paint film that could lead to detachment of portions of the painted layer and disaggregation of the underlying ground. The painted surfaces undergo damage or discolored due to natural weathering, and the growth and activity of living organisms.
BIODETERIORATION OF PAINT AND PAINT FILMS
Bacillus pumilus was the bacterial species present at the highest cell concentration, by far, and Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum were the fungal species biodeteriorration at the highest cell concentrations. University of Panits Paintings on paper or silk are laid, in general, directly on the support, since a ground or underlay is lacking, but the pigments are kept in emulsion with organic binders. Likewise, if temperature, moisture, and light are not controlled, the microbial communities of two paintings produced with exactly the same materials will differ considerably if one painting is kept in the northern latitudes and the other is kept in the tropics.
Of the isolates, 46 were identified as members of 19 different species of Bioeterioration and 5 were identified as members of the genus Nocardia. Fungal deterioration of cellulosic textiles: Observations on cell structure of micro-organisms of an epilithic photoprophic community competing for light.
Pullularia as a cause of deterioration of paint and plastic surfaces in South Florida. Orlando, Bravery AF Biodeterioration of paint – a stateof- the-art review. Influence of different lights on mixed cultures of pants from ancient frescoes. In this review a brief description of the paints and their compositions, paint properties, paint biodetoriation and biodegradation are described.